emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire, when establishing the state church of the Roman Empire. 300 Western Christianity, particularly through its monasteries, was a major factor in preserving classical civilisation, with its art (see Illuminated manuscript ) and literacy. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 21st century In 2005, following the death of John Paul II, Pope Benedict XVI, head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith under John Paul, was elected. "It is usual to distinguish a twofold hierarchy in the Church, that of order and that of jurisdiction, corresponding to the twofold means of sanctification, grace, which comes to us principally through the sacraments, and good works, which are the fruit of grace.". 179 Anointing of the sick Main article: Anointing of the Sick in the Catholic Church While chrism is used only for the three sacraments that cannot be repeated, a different oil is used by a priest or bishop.
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184 Holy Orders Main article: Holy orders in the Catholic Church Priests lay their hands on the ordinands during the rite of ordination. 225 The church has always been involved in education, since the founding of the first universities of Europe. Accessed "Code of Canons for the Eastern Churches, Title 2". These are in turn interpreted by the Magisterium (from magister, Latin for "teacher the church's teaching authority, which is exercised by the pope and the College of Bishops avis site de rencontre sérieux mature velue
in union with the pope, the bishop of Rome. "Responses to Some Questions regarding Certain Aspects of the Doctrine of the Church". 194 Matrimony Main article: Marriage in the Catholic Church See also: Catholic teachings on sexual morality The Catholic Church teaches that marriage is a social and spiritual bond between a man and a woman, ordered towards the good of the spouses. 136 Further teachings include the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception (her own conception without the stain of original sin) and the Assumption of Mary (that her body was assumed directly into heaven at the end of her life). 'universal was first used to describe the church in the early 2nd century. 378 Mikhail Gorbachev, the president of the Soviet Union, credited the Polish pope with hastening the fall of Communism in Europe. 16 Its teaching includes Divine Mercy, sanctification through faith and evangelisation of the Gospel as well as Catholic social teaching, which emphasises voluntary support for the sick, the poor, and the afflicted through the corporal and spiritual works of mercy. An innocent spouse who lives in continence following divorce, or couples who live in continence following a civil divorce for a grave cause, do not sin. Historically, boys and men have only been permitted to serve as altar servers; however, since the 1990s, girls and women have also been permitted. Though the schism was reconciled, unresolved issues would lead to further division. Earlier splits within the church occurred after the Council of Ephesus (431) and the Council of Chalcedon (451). In relation to the churches of Eastern Christianity not in communion with the Holy See, the Catholic Church is less restrictive, declaring that "a certain communion in sacris, and so in the Eucharist, given suitable circumstances and the approval. "Catholic Law Schools and Ex Corde Ecclesiae", Theological Exploration, vol.